(see also Russia: Soviet Regime & Central Asia General)
CIA World Factbook. Includes map.
World Guide (Montevideo)
Human Rights and Terrorism in the Central Asian OSCE Member States. International Helskini Federation for Human Rights (12/1001). Impact of anti-terrorist measures on human rights generally.
On the Web: Specialized Sites
Brown, Bess. "Turkmenistan asserts itself," RFE-RL Research Report 1,43 (10/30/92):27-32.
Bushev, A. "Turkmenistan: a kind of prosperity," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50,1 (1-2/94):44-47.
Durdyev, Khudayberdy. "Turkmenistan: toward a new maturity," World Literature Today 70,3 (sum 96):589-93.
Nissman, D. "Turkmenistan (un)transformed," Current History 93,582 (4/94):183-86.
Panico, Christopher J. "Turkmenistan unaffected by winds of democratic change," RFE-RL Research Report 2,4 (1/22/93):6-11.
Sagers, Matthew J. "Turkmenistan's
gas trade: the case of exports to Ukraine," Post-
Soviet Geography & Economics 40,2 (3/99):142-50.
Shenoy, B.V & W. James. "Turkmenistan fumbling opportunities offered by Trans-Caspian pipeline," Oil & Gas Journal 99,22 (5/28/01):70-73.
Ugur, Halil. "Turkmenistan: political, economic & international developments in the wake of Soviet imperialism," Journal of Third World Studies 13,1 (spr 96):15-24.
In the Library: Non-Fiction Books
Anon. Republic of Turkmenistan: Short Analysis of the Social & Political Situation (Moscow: Gorbachev Foundation, 1992).
Batyrov, Sh. B. On the Formation & Development of the Turkman Socialist Nation (Moscow: Oriental Literature, 1960).
Berls, Robert E. The Russian Conquest of Turkmenistan, 1869-1885 (Washington: Berls, 1972).
Blackwell, Carole. Tradition & Society in Turkmenistan: Gender, Oral Culture & Song (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001).
Bremmer, Ian. & Ray Taras (eds.) New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (NY: Campridge, 1997).
Brower, Daniel R. Images of the Orient: Vasily Vereschagin & Russian Turkestan (Berkeley: U. California, 1993).
Cumming, Duncan (ed.) The Country of the Turkomans: An Anthology of Exploration from the Royal Geographical Society (Londun: Oguz, 1977).
Dailey, Erika. Human Rights in Turkmenistan (NY: Helsinki Watch, 1993).
Esenov, Rakhim. The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Moscow: Novosti Press Agency, 1974).
__________. Turkmenia (Moscow: Novosti Press Agency, 1982).
Hayit, Baymirza. Islam & Turkestan under Russian Rule (Istanbul: Can Matbaa, 1987).
Holdsworth, Mary. Turkestan in the 19th c.: A Brief History of the Khanates of Bukhara, Kokand & Khiva (Oxford: Central Asian Research Centre, 1959).
Landau, Jacob M. Politics of Language in the Ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azerbayjan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan & Tajikistan (Ann Arbor : U. Michigan, 2001).
Maillart, Ella. Turkestan Solo: One Woman's Expedition from the Tien Shan to the Kizil Kum (London: Putnam, 1934).
Mandelbaum, Michael (ed.) Central Asia & the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan & Turkmenistan (NY: Council on Foreign Relations, 1994).
Maslow, Jonathan E. Sacred Horses: The Memoirs of a Turkmen Cowboy (NY: Random House, 1994).
Muller, Helga. Turkmenistan (Washington: World Bank, 1994).
Saray, Mehmet. The Turkmens in the Age of Imperialism: A Study of the Turkmen People & their Incorporation into the Russian Empire (Ankara: Turkish Historical Society, 1989).