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Chile: Popular Unity 1970-73

(see also Chile, Chile: Mapuches & Chile: Pinochet Regime)

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CIA World Factbook. Includes map.

New Internationalist Profile.

UN Development Program, Human Development Indicators.

World Guide.

On the Web: Articles

On the Web: Specialized Sites

Ibermundo Chile.

In the Library: Articles

Anon. "Chile: the lesson," Progressive (11/73):15-18. On the international economic strangulation of the Allende regime.

__________. "US capitalism & Chile," Business & Society Review/Innovation (win 73-74):73-77. On economic strangulation combined with increases in military "aid."

__________. "Background to the coup in Chile," International Socialist Review 34 (10/73):6-11.

Arroyo, Gonzalo. "Notas sobre la Iglesia y los cristianos de izquierda al momento del coup en Chile," Latin American Perspectives 4 (spr 1975):89-100.

Barraclough, Solon. "Agrarian reform & structural change in Latin America: the Chilean case," Journal of Development Studies 2,2 (1972):163-82.

Biehl del Rio, J. & G. Fernández. "The political prerequisites for a Chilean Way," Government & Opposition 7,3 (sum 72):305-26.

Bollinger, William & Norma Stoltz Chinchilla. "Theoretical issues of the Chilean experience," Latin American Perspectives 1,2 (sum 74):3-8.

Bossert, Thomas John. "The agrarian reform & peasant political consciousness in Chile," Latin American Perspectives 27 (fall 80):6-28.

Burns, E. Bradford. "Reform gunned down: true verdict on Allende," Nation (10/29/73):422-26.

Cerqueira, Silas. "Chile," in Bernard & others, Guide to Political Parties of South America (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973), pp. 236-76.

Chaney, Elsa M. "Women in Latin American politics, the cases of Peru & Chile," in A. Pescatello (ed.) Female & Male in Latin America (Pittsburgh: U. Pittsburgh, 1973), pp. 103-40.

Chinchilla, Norma Stoltz & Marvin Sternberg. "The agrarian reform & campesino consciousness," Latin American Perspectives 1,2 (1974):106-28.

Chonchol, Jacques. "La reforma agraria en Chile (1964-1973)," Trimestre Económico (México) 43,171 (7-9/76):599-623.

__________. "Social & economic organization of the Chilean reformed sector during the Popular Unity government, 1971-september 1973," in P. Dorner (ed.) Cooperative & Commune: Group Farming in the Economic Development of Agriculture (Madison: U. Wisconsin, 1977), pp. 199-212.

Cockcroft, James D. "Impact of transnational corporations on Chile's social structure," Summation 5,1-2 (sum-fall 75).

Corvalán, Luis. "The communists' tactics relative to agrarian reform in Chile," in Smith (ed.) Agrarian Reform in Latin America, pp. 138-44.

Crummett, María de los Angeles. "El poder femenino: the mobilization of women against socialism in Chile," Latin American Perspectives (1977):103-.

Erickson, Kenneth P. & Patrick V. Peppe. "Dependent capitalist development, US foreign policy & repression of the working class in Chile & Brazil," Latin American Perspectives 3,1 (win 76):19-44.

Farnsworth, Elizabeth. "The 1970 elections: a brief background," NACLA Report 5,1 (3/71):2-3.

__________ & Marc Herold (eds.) "Popular Unity government: basic program," NACLA Report 5,1 (3/71):3-17.

Feinberg, Richard. "Dependency & the defeat of Allende," Latin American Perspectives 1,2 (sum 74):30-43.

Fleet, Michael. "Allende's Chile: a look after two years," Proceedings of the Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies 2 (1973):143-66.

García Márquez, Gabriel. "The death of Salvador Allende," in Alavi & Shanin (eds.) Introduction to the Sociology of "Developing Societies" (NY, 1982), p. 350-62.

Garrett-Schesch, Pat. "The mobilization of women during the Popular Unity government," Latin American Perspectives 4 (spr 75):101-3.

Greenfield, Michael G. "Creating a climate of opinion? The Los Angeles Times & Salvador Allende," Proceedings of the Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies 5 (1976):57-68.

Hanson, Simon. "Kissinger on the Chilean coup," Inter-American Economic Affairs 27,3 (win 73):61-85.

Hite, Katherine. "The formation & transformation of political identity: leaders of the Chilean Left, 1968-1990," Journal of Latin American Studies 28,2 (5/96).

Hudson, Rexford A. "The role of the constitutional conflict over nationalization in the downfall of Salvador Allende," Inter-American Economic Affairs 31,4 (spr 78):63-79.

Kay, Cristobal. "La participación campesina bajo el cobierno de la Unidad Popular en Chile," Revista Mexicana de Sociología 36,2 (3-6/74):279-95.

__________. "Chile: the making of a coup d'etat," Science & Society 39,1 (spr 75):3-25.

__________. "Agrarian reform & the transition to socialism in Chile, 1970-73," Journal of Peasant Studies 2,4 (7/75):418-45.

__________. "Agrarian reform & the class struggle in Chile," Latin American Perspectives 18 (1978):117-40.

Kirchheimer, Donna Wilson. "Songs of revolution by the people's musicians of Chile," Sing Out 22,5 (9-10/73):6-13.

Landau, Saul. "Allende interview," NACLA 5,1 (3/71):26-30.

Langton, Kenneth P. & Ronald Rapoport. "Religion & leftist mobilization in Chile," Comparative Political Studies 9,3 (10/76):277-308.

Lawrence, Preston Lee. "Chile: radicalization & the breakdown of democracy," in K. Schmitt (ed.) Dynamics of the Third World (Cambridge MA, 1975), pp. 71-132.

Lehmann, David. "Peasant consciousness & agrarian reform in Chile," European Journal of Sociology 13,2 (1972):196-325.

Letelier, Orlando. "Chile: economic 'freedom' & political repression," Race & Class 18,3 (win 76):247-61.

__________. "Chile: economic 'freedom's' awful toll: the 'Chicago Boys' in Chile," Review of Radical Poltical Economy 8,3 (fall 76):44-52.

Loveman, Brian. "Rural radicalism & agrarian reform in Chile," New Scholar 4,2 (1974):245-50.

__________. "Allende's Chile: the peaceful road to disaster," New Scholar 5,2 (1976).

Mattelart, Michele. "La mujer y la línea de masa de la burguesía: el caso de Chile," in Elu de Leñero (ed.) La mujer en América Latina 2 (México, 1975), pp. 132-55.

__________. "Chile: the feminine version of the coup d'etat," in J. Nash & H. Safá (ed.) Sex & Class in Latin America

Modell, Hilary & Howard Waitzkin. "Health care & socialism in Chile," Monthly Review 27,1 (5/75):29-40.

Morley, Morris & Steven Smith. "Imperial reach: US policy & the CIA in Chile," Journal of Political & Military Sociology 5,2 (fall 77):203-16.

Morley, Morris & James F. Petras. "On the US & the overthrow of Allende: a reply to Sigmund," Latin American Research Review 13,1 (1978):204-21 & Sigmund respons.

Morris, Nancy E. "Canto porque es necesario cantar: the New Song movement in Chile, 1973-1983," Latin American Research Review 21,2 (1986):117-36.

Nef, Jorge. "The revolution that never was: perspectives on democracy, socialism & reaction in Chile," Latin American Research Review 18,1 (1983):228-45.

Newton, Abby. "Victor Jara: his life & death," Sing Out! 23,2 (5-6/74):13-15.

Nunn, Frederick M. "New thoughts on military intervention in Latin American politics: the Chilean case, 1973," Journal of Latin American Studies 7,2 (11/75):271-304.

Oppenheim, Lois Hecht. "The Chilean road to socialism revisited," Latin American Research Review 24,1 (1989):155-83.

Peppe, Patrick. "The working class & the defeat of socialism in Chile," Radical History Review 27 (1983):185-94.

Perera, Victor. "The coast is not clear: Chileans in exile," Nation (2/11/78). Review essay on writings by Ariel Dorfman, Antonio Skarmeta, José Donoso, Jorge Edwards, Hernán Valdés & Fernando Alegría about the Allende period.

Petras, James. "Achievements of the Allende government," New Politics 9,3 (fall 71):20-26.

Pollock, J. "Reporting on Chile: what the press leaves out," Nation 1/29/73):134-38.

Riz, Lilliande. "La lucha de clases en la sociedad chilena: hipótesis para su interpretación," Revista Mexicana de Sociología 38,1 (1-3/76):127-47.

Rosen García Huidobro, Francisca. "Attitudes toward collectivization held by Chilean campesinos," Land Tenure Center Newsletter (Madison WI) 51 (1-3/76):16-24.

Rosenkrantz, Hernán & Benny Pollack. "Estrategias políticas divergentes, movilización convergente, y sectores medios: la izquierda y la democracia cristiana en Chile, 1963-1973," Foro Internacional (México) 17,2 (10-12/76):215-43.

Scott, C.D. "Some problems of marketing among small peasant proprietors in Chile," Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos 13 (12/72).

Smith, Stephen M. & others. "Some consequences for production & factor use of the Chilean agrarian reform," Land Tenure Center Newsletter (Madison WI) 46 (10-12/74):6-18.

Spence, Jack. "Class mobilization & conflict in Allende's Chile," Politics & Society 8,2 (1978):131-64.

Stallings, Barbara & Andy Zimbalist. "The political economy of the Unidad Popular," Latin American Perspectives 4 (spr 75):69-88.

Steenland, Kyle. "Rural strategy under Allende," Latin American Perspectives 1,2 (1974):129-46.

Teitelboim, Volodia. "Reflections on the 1,000 days of Popular Unity rule," World Marxist Review 20 (1/77):50-61.

Tinsman, Heidi. "Good wives & unfaithful men: gender negotiations & sexual conflicts in the Chilean agrarian reform, 1964-1973," Hispanic American Historical Review 81,3-4 (8-11/01):587-622.

Torre, Juan Carlos. "Workers' struggle & consciousness," Latin American Perspectives 1,3 (fall 74):73-81.

Videla de Plankey, Gabriela. "Las mujeres pobladoras de Chile y el proceso revolucionario," in Elú de Leñero (ed.) Perspectivas femeninas en América Latina (México: SepSetentas, 1976), pp. 194-209.

Wallis, Victor. "Imperialism & the via chilena," Latin American Perspectives 1,2 (sum 74):44-57.

Winn, Peter & Cristobal Kay. "Agrarian reform & rural revolution in Allende's Chile," Journal of Latin American Studies 6,1 (1974):135-59.

__________. "Loosing the chains: labor & the Chilean revolutionary process, 1970-1973," Latin American Perspectives 8 (win 76):70-84.

Witker, Alejandro. "José Toha: fulgor y huella en la Revolución Chilena," Cuadernos Americanos 210,2 (3-4/77):15-53.

Zapata, Francisco S. "The Chilean labor movement & problems of the transition to socialism," Latin American Perspectives 8 (win 76):85-97.

Zimbalist, Andy & Barbara Stallings. "Showdown in Chile," Monthly Review 25,5 (10/73):1-24.

__________. "Workers' control: its structure under Allende," Monthly Review 25,20 (3/74):39-42.

__________ & James Petras. "Workers' control in Chile during Allende's presidency," Comparative Urban Research 3,3 (4/76):21-30.

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Andreas, Carol. "Nothing Is As It Should Be": A North American Woman in Chile (Cambridge MA, 1976).

Alexander, Robert. The Tragedy of Chile (London, 1978).

Anon. Chile at the Turning Point: Lessons of the Socialist Years, 1970-73 (Philadelphia: ISHI, 1979).

Boorstein, Edward. Allende's Chile: An Inside View (NY: International, 1977).

Budiman, Arief. Mobilization & State Strategies in the Democratic Transition to Socialism: The Case of Allende's Chile (Cambridge, 1980).

Cancino Troncoso, Hugo. Chile: La problemática del poder popular en el proceso de la via chilena al socialismo, 1970-1973 (Arhus, Denmark, 1988).

Chavkin, Samuel. The Murder of Chile: Eyewitness Accounts of the Coup, the Terror & the Resistance Today (NY, 1982).

Cleaves, Peter S. Bureaucratic Politics & Administration in Chile (Berkeley, 1974).

Cusack, David F. Revolution & Reaction: The Internal & International Dynamics of Conflict & Confrontation in Chile (Denver: U. Denver, 1976).

Davis, Nathaniel. The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende (Ithaca: Cornell, 1985).

Debray, Régis. The Chilean Revolution (Conversations with Allende) (NY, 1971).

del Pozo, José. Rebeldes, reformistas y revolucionarios: una historia oral de la izquierda chilena en la época de la Unidad Popular (Santiago, 1992).

de Vylder, Stefan. Allende's Chile (NY: Cambridge, 1976).

Espinosa, Juan G. & Andrew S. Zimbalist. Economic Democracy: Workers' Participation in Chilean Industry, 1970-1973 (NY, 1978). Argues that it made for higher, not lower, productivity.

Falcoff, Mark. Modern Chile: 1970-1989, A Critical History (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers, 1989).

Farrell, Joseph P. The National Unified School in Allende's Chile: The Role of Education in the Destruction of a Revolution (Vancouver, 1986).

Faundez, Julio. Marxism & Democracy in Chile: 1932 to the Fall of Allende (New Haven, 1989).

Feinberg, Richard E. The Triumph of Allende: Chile's Legal Revolution (NY, 1972).

Fermandois, Joaquin. Chile y el mundo: la política exterior del gobierno de la Unidad Popular y el sistema internacional (Santiago: U. Católica de Chile, 1985).

Fischer, Kathleen B. Political Ideology & Educational Reform in Chile, 1964-1976 (Los Angeles, 1979).

Furci, Carmelo. The Chilean Communist Party & the Road to Socialism (London: Zed, 1984).

Garretón, Manuel Antonio y Tomás Moulian. La Unidad Popular y el conflicto político en Chile (Santiago: Minga, 1983).

Henfrey , Colin & Bernardo Sorj (eds.) Chilean Voices: Activists Describe their Experiences of the Popular Unity Period (Sussex, 1977).

Hirsch, Fred & Richard Fletcher. The CIA & the Labour Movement (London, 1977).

Horne, Alistaire. Small Earthquake in Chile (NY: Viking, 1973).

Institute of General Studies. Chile: A Critical Survey (Santiago, 1972). Concludes that the Army is a disciplined, professional body, & that a coup is inconceivable in the absence of gross violations of the Constitution!

Israel Z., Ricardo. Politics & Ideology in Allende's Chile (Tempe AZ: Arizona State U, 1989).

Jara, Joan. Victor, an Unfinished Song (London: Jonathan Cape, 1983). Story of the life & martyrdom of the beloved singer/acivist Victor Jara, as told by his widow.

Johnson, L. Dale (ed.) The Chilean Road to Socialism (NY, 1973).

Kay, Cristobal. Chile: An Appraisal of Popular Unity's Agrarian Reform (Glasgow, 1974).

MacEoin, Gary. No Peaceful Way (NY, 1974).

Machale, Tomás P. (ed.) Chile: A Critical Survey (Santiago, 1972).

Martner, Gonzalo. El gobierno de Salvador Allende, 1970-1973 (Santiago: Ediciones LAR, 1988).

Medhurst, Kenneth. Allende's Chile (NY, 1972).

Millas, Hernán y Emilio Filippi. Chile 1970-73: crónica de una experiencia (Santiago, 1974).

Morris, David J. We Must Make Haste -- Slowly: The Process of Revolution in Chile (NY: Vintage, 1973).

NACLA. New Chile (Berkeley, 1973).

Palacios, Jorge. Chile: An Attempt at 'Historic Compromise': The Real Story of the Allende Years (Chicago, 1979). Left critique of the role of the Chilean Communist Party in the fall of Allende.

Petras, Elizabeth. Social Organization of the Urban Housing Movement: Chile (Buffalo: SUNY, 1973).

Raptis, Michael. Revolution & Counter-Revolution in Chile: A Dossier on Workers' Participation in the Revolutionary Process (NY, 1973).

Roxborough, Ian; Phil O'Brien & Jackie Roddick. Chile: The State & Revolution (London, 1975).

Sideri, Sandro. Chile 1970-73: Economic Development & the International Setting. Self-Criticism of the Unidad Popular Government's Policies (The Hague, 1979).

Sigmund, Paul E. The Overthrow of Allende & the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976 (Pittsburgh: U. of Pittsburgh, 1977).

Smirnow, Gabriel. The Revolution Disarmed: Chile, 1970-1973 (NY: Monthly Review, 1979).

Sobel, Lester A. (ed.) Chile & Allende (NY, 1974).

Spence, Jack. Search for Justice: Neighborhood Courts in Allende's Chile (Boulder, 1979).

Stallings, Barbara. Class Conflict & Economic Development in Chile, 1958-1973 (Stanford: Stanford, 1978).

Steenland, Kyle. Agrarian Reform under Allende: Peasant Revolt in the South (Albuquerque: U. New Mexico, 1977).

Sweezy, Paul M. & Harry Magdoff (eds.) Revolution & Counter-Revolution in Chile (NY: Monthly Review, 1974).

Uribe, Armando. The Black Book of American Intervention in Chile (Boston: Beacon, 1975).

US Congress. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs. The US & Chile during the Allende Years, 1970-1973: Hearings (Washington, 1975).

Valenzuela, Arturo & J. Samuel (eds.) Chile: Politics & Society (New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1975).

__________. The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Chile (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1978).

Welch, Chris. Introduction to Chile: A Cartoon History (London, 1976).

Whitehead, Laurence. The Lesson of Chile (London, 1974).

Winn, Peter. Weavers of Revolution: The Yarur Workers & Chile's Road to Socialism (NY: Oxford, 1986).

Zammit, J. Ann (ed.) The Chilean Road to Socialism (Austin, 1973). Proceedings of a 1972 conference.

Zapata, Francisco. Los mineros de Chuquicamata: productores o proletarios? (México: Colegio de México, 197?).

__________. Las relaciones entre el movimiento obrero y el gobierno de Salvador Allende (México: Colegio de México, 1975).

In the Library: Fiction

García-Huidobro, Beatriz. Hasta ya no ir (Santiago: LOM, 1996). Society & politics in the 60's & 70's as experienced by a peasant girl of the south, the victim of severe sexual exploitation.

Marín, Germán. Carne de perro (Santiago: B Chile, 2002). Set around the political assassination of ex-minister Edmundo Pérez Zujovic in Santiago in June, 1971.

Richards, Caroline. Sweet Country (NY: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, 1979). Recreates life before, during & after the Pinochet coup of 1973.

Skármeta, Antonio. Soñé que la nieve ardía (Barcelona: Planeta, 1975; English trans. by Malcolm Coad, I Dreamt the Snow Was Burning; London: Readers International, 1985).

__________. El cartero de Neruda (Ardiente paciencia) (Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 1995). Tender story of a village postman's friendship with Neruda before & during the Allende period, from which the film "Il Postino" was loosely adapted.

Varas, José Miguel. El correo de Bagdad [1994] (Santiago: Alfaguara, 2002).

In the Library: For Young Readers

In the Library: Poetry

In the Library: Drama

In the Library: Photography

CD & Audio

Film & Video

"Avenue of the Americas" [1982], dir. Jorge Reyes, 82m. From Cinema Guild. Background & program of Popular Unity; why it was so bitterly opposed by US & Chilean propertied class.

"La batalla de Chile (The Battle of Chile)" [197?], dir. Patricio Guzmán, three tapes, 287m. From First Run/Icarus. Prizewinning documentary filmed during last nine months of Popular Unity government, prior to bloody military coup led by Gen. Augusto Pinochet on 9/11/73. Part I: "The Insurrection of the Bourgeoisie," 106m. Part II: "The Coup d'Etat," 99m. Part III: "The Power of the People," 82m, recording a variety of popular resistance efforts during the months before the fall.

"Chile: Obstinate Memory" [1998], dir. Patricio Guzmán, 58m. From First Run/Icarus. Returns to Chile after the restoration of democracy, to revisit the 1973 coup with other survivors, some of whom had been filmed for "The Battle of Chile" 25 years before.

"Conversations with Allende" [1971], dir. Saul Landau, 32m. From Cinema Guild. Interviews in which Allende lays out basic beliefs & program he intends to pursue as leader of Popular Unity.

"Pablo Neruda: Poet" [1972], dir. ?, 30m. From Cinema Guild. Examines life & work of Nobel Prize- winning poet.

"Que Hacer?" [1971], dir. Saul Landau & Nina Serrano, 92m. From Cinema Guild. Spy story-musical feature set in Popular Unity period.

"Salvador Allende" [2004], dir. Patricio Guzmán, 100m. Deeply personal reconstruction from old footage of late president's life & work.

"Victor Jara: The Right to Live in Peace (Victor Jara: El derecho de vivir en paz)" [1999], dir. Carmen Luz Parot, 59m. From Latin American Video Archives. Documentary on life & work of martyred singer.

"When the People Awake" [1972], dir. Alfonso Beato, 60m. From Cinema Guild. Social & political changes introduced by Allende's Popular Unity government.

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