African American Movements
(See also Abolitionists, African American History, Life & Values to 1968, African American History, Life & Values since 1968, Civil Rights Movement, American Radicalism, Hip-Hop Politics, Muslim American History, Life & Values, White Racism, Jim Crow, Lynching & Jamaica)
America's Debt to Blacks. Randall Robinson, Nation (2/23/00).
On the Web: Specialized Sites
Bates, Beth Tompkins. "A new crowd challenges the agenda of the Old Guard in the NAACP, 1933-1941," American Historical Review 102,2 (4/97):340-77.
Berubé, Michael. "Public academy," New Yorker (1/9/97). On Cornell West, Bell Hooks & other contemporary Black intellectuals.
Boggs, Grace Lee. "Martin & Malcolm: how shall we honor our heroes?" Monthly Review 49,2 (6/97):10-19.
Bouvard, Marguerite Guzmán. "Dollie B. Burwell (interview)," in her Women Reshaping Human Rights (Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 1996), pp. 179-197. North Carolina community & environmental justice organizer.
Brown-Nagin, Tomiko. "The transformation of a social movement into law? The SCLC & NAACP's campaigns for civil rights reconsidered in the light of the educational activism of Septima Clark," Women's History Review 8 (1999):81-138.
Cha-Jua, Sundiata K. "Mississippi Burning: the burning of Black self-activity," Radical History Review 45 (1989):125-36.
Cruse, Harold W. "Revolutionary nationalism & the Afro-American," Studies on the Left 2,3 (1962), & comments in 3,1 (1963). Controversial argument for Black separatism.
DeJong, Greta. "'With the aid of God & the FSA': the Louisiana Farmers' Union & the African American freedom struggle in the New Deal era," Journal of Social History 34 (2000):105-40.
Dreifus, Claudia. "Julian Bond [interview]," Progressive (8/98).
__________. "Kareem Abdul-Jabbar," "Myrlie Evers," "Samuel L. Jackson," "Toni Morrison," & "Andrew Young" in her Interview (NY: Seven Stories, 1999).
Dudziak, Mary. "Desegregation as a Cold War imperative," Stanford Law Review 41, 61 (11/88):61-120.
Estes, Steve. "'I am a man!': race, masculinity & the 1968 Memphis sanitation strike," Labor History 41 (2000):153-70.
Gaines, Kevin. "Rethinking race & class in African-American struggles for equality, 1885-1941," American Historical Review 102,2 (3/97):378-87.
Gambino, Ferruccio. "The transgression of a laborer: Malcolm X in the wilderness of America," Radical History Review 55 (win 93):7-32.
Garvey, Marcus & others. "Black nationalism: the early debate," Studies on the Left 4,3 (1964).
Gregor, A. James. "Black nationalism: a preliminary analysis of Negro radicalism," Science & Society 27 (1963):415-32.
Griffin, Larry & Robert R. Korstad. "Class as race & gender: making & breaking a labor union in the Jim Crow South," Social Science History 19 (1995):425-54.
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. "'You must remember this': autobiography as social critique," Journal of American History 85 (1998):439-65.
__________. "Broadus Mitchell, 1892-1988," Radical History Review 45 (1989):31-38.
Harding, Vincent. "Wrestling with the dawn: the Afro-American freedom movement & the changing Constitution," Journal of American History 74 (1987):718-39.
Horne, Gerald. "'Myth' & the making of 'Malcolm X'," American Historical Review 98,2 (4/93):440-50.
Levine, Lawrence W. "The historical odyssey of Nathan Irvin Huggins," Radical History Review 5 (win 1993):112-34.
Lewis, Earl. "To turn as on a pivot: writing African Americans into a history of overlapping diasporas," American Historical Review 100,3 (6/95):765-87.
Marable, Manning. "Black insurgency," in Buhle & Dawley (eds.) Working for Democracy (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1985), pp. 125-33.
__________. "Rethinking Black liberation: towards a new protest paradigm," Race & Class 38,4 (4/97):1-14.
__________. "Black fundamentalism: Farrakhan & conservative Black nationalism," Race & Class 39,4 (4/98):1-22.
Meriwether, James H. "African Americans & the Mau Mau Rebellion: militancy, violence & the struggle for freedom," Journal of American Ethnic History 17,4 (sum 98):63-86.
Muwakkil, Salim."All in the family," In These Times (12/25/95). Jesse Jackson.
__________. "Choosing between evils," In These Times (9/2/96). Search for a Black political agenda.
__________. "Deconstructing Blackness," In These Times (6/16/97). Critique of Jim Sleeper & Randall Kennedy, who've argued for "getting beyond" Black identity.
__________. "The big payback," In These Times (6/30/97). Black reparations.
__________. "Roots: the sequel," In These Times (7/14/97). Forthcoming Black Radical Congress (June 1998).
__________. "Letting go of the dream," In These Times (11/2/97). Rejecting ideal of integration.
__________. "Louis Farrakhan's new song," In These Times (4/5/98). Turn from anti-white racism to more orthodox Islam.
Nichols, John. "Cornell West [interview]," Progressive (1/97).
Painter, Nell Irvin. "Malcolm X across the genres," American Historical Review 88,2 (4/93):432-39.
Pérez, Marvette. "Interview with Bernice Johnson Reagon," Radical History Review 68 (spr 97):4-24.
Regna, Stephen P. "Arise ye mighty people! Gender, class & race in popular struggles," Identities 3 (8/96).
Richards, Paul. "W.E.B. DuBois & American social history: evolution of a Marxist," Radical America 4,8-9 (11/70):37-65.
Schultz, John. "An interview with Robert F. Williams," Studies on the Left 2,3 (1962).
Slaughter, Jane. "Henry Louis Gates Jr. [interview]," Progressive (1/98).
Steinberg, Stephen. "Up from slavery: the myth of Black progress," New Politics (sum 98):69-81.
Stephens, Michelle A. "Black transnationalism & the politics of national identity: West Indian intellectuals in Harlem in the age of war & revolution," American Quarterly 50 (1998):592-608.
Taylor, Ulla Y. "'Negro women are great thinkers as well as doers': Amy Jacques-Garvey & community feminism," Journal of Women's History 12 (spr 2000):104-26.
Thomas, Richard. "Blacks & the CIO," in Buhle & Dawley (eds.) Working for Democracy (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1985), pp. 93-100.
Thomas, Tony. "Leninism, Stalinism & Black nationalism," Black Liberation & Socialism (1974):157-76.
Tyson, Timothy. "Robert F. Williams, 'Black Power' & the roots of the African American freedom struggle," Journal of American History 85 (1998):540-70.
Wellman, David. "The new political linguistics of race," Socialist Review 87-88 (5-8/86):43-79.
West, Cornell. "Left strategies: a view from Afro-America," Socialist Review 86 (3-4/86):41-49.
Wicker, Tom. "Deserting the Democrats," Nation (6/17/96). Why Blacks & the poor should do it & found their own party.
Williamson, Arthur. "Lapses of reason," In These Times (3/18/96):16-18. Situates King & Farrakhan in Western intellectual history: Enlightenment vs. Romanticism. "Blood mysticism" of Farrakhan, rising since 60's, has about run its course.
Woodruff, Nan Elizabeth. "African-American struggles for Citizenship in the Arkansas & Mississippi Deltas in the age of Jim Crow," Radical History Review 5 (win 1993):33-52.
In the Library: Non-Fiction Books
Abu-Nimer, Mohammed. Nonviolence & Peace Building in Islam (Gainesville: U. of Florida, 2003).
Alexander, Peter. Racism, Resistance & Revolution (London: Bookmarks, 1987).
America, Richard F. Paying the Social Debt: What White America Owes Black America (Westport CT: Praeger, 1993).
Anner, John (ed.) Beyond Identity Politics: Emerging Social Justice Movements in Communities of Color (Boston, 1996).
Anthony, Earl. Spitting in the Wind: The True Story Behind the Violent Legacy of the Black Panther Party (Santa Monica: Roundtable, 1990).
Baldwin, James. Notes of a Native Son (Boston: Beacon, 1955).
__________. Nobody Knows My Name. More Notes of a Native Son (NY: Dial, 1961).
__________, The Fire Next Time (NY: Dial, 1963).
Baraka, Imamu Amiri. Kawaida Studies: The New Nationalism (Chicago: Third World, 1972).
Boggs, James. Racism & the Class Struggle: Futher Pages from a Black Worker's Notebook (NY: Monthly Review, 1970).
Bond, Julian. A Time to Speak, a Time to Act: The Movement in Politics (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1972).
__________ & Sondra Kathryn Wilson (eds.) Lift Every Voice & Sing: A Celebration of the Negro National Anthem (NY: Random House, 2000).
Breitman, George. Malcolm X, the Man & his Ideas (NY: Pioneer, 1965).
__________. The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary (NY: Merit, 1967).
__________ et al. (eds.) The Assassination of Malcolm X (NY: Pathfinder, 1976).
Brown, Kevin. Malcolm X: His Life & Legacy (Brookfield CT: Millbrook, 1995).
Brown, Lloyd L. Stand Up for Freedom: The Negro People vs. the Smith Act (NY: New Century, 1952).
Brown, Tony. Black Lies, White Lies: The Truth According to Tony Brown (NY: Morrow, 1995).
Burns, Stewart (ed.) Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1997).
Carmichael, Stokely & Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power. The Politics of Liberation in America (NY, 1967).
Carson, Clayborne. Malcolm X: the FBI File (NY: Carroll & Graf, 1991).
Chapman, Mark L. Christianity on Trial: African-American Religious Thought before & after Black Power (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1996).
Carmichael, Stokely. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (NY: Random House, 1967).
__________. Stokely Speaks: Black Power back to Pan-Africanism (NY: Random House, 1971).
__________ with Ekueme Michael Thelwell. Ready for Revolution: The Life & Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (NY: Scribner, 2003).
Childs, John Brown. Leadership, Conflict, & Cooperation in Afro-American Social Thought (?,?).
Chireau, Yvonne & Nathanial Deutsch (eds.) Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism (NY: Oxford, 2000).
Cleage, Albert B. The Black Messiah (NY: Sheed & Ward, 1968).
Cleaver, Kathleen & George N. Katsiaficas (eds.) Liberation, Imagination, & the Black Panther Party: A New Look at the Panthers & their Legacy (NY: Routledge, 2001).
Cobb, William Jelani. The Essential Harold Cruse: A Reader (NY?: Palgrave, 2002).
Collins, David R. Malcolm X: Black Rage (NY: Dillon, 1992).
Collins, Rodnell P. Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X (Secaucus NJ: Carol, 1998).
Cruse, Harold. Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: A Historical Analysis of the Failure of Black Leadership (?, 1967).
Draper, Theodore. The Rediscovery of Black Nationalism (London, 1971).
Duberman, Martin. Paul Robeson (NY: Knopf, 1988).
Essien-Udom, E.U. Black Nationalism. A Search for an Identity in America (Chicago, 1962).
Fradin, Dennis Brindell & Judith Bloom Fradin. Ida B. Wells: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement (NY: Clarion, 2000).
Franklin, V.P. et al. (eds.) African Americans & Jews in the 20th C.: Studies in Convergence & Conflict (NY: Columbia U., 1998).
Fraser, George C. Success Runs in Our Race: A Complete Guide to Effective Networking in the Black Community (NY: Amistad, 2004).
Fredrickson, George M. Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the US & South Africa (NY, 1995).
Hacker, Andrew. Two Nations, Black & White: Separate, Hostile, Unequal (NY: Ballantine, 1995).
Hall, R.L. Black Separatism & Social Reality (NY: Oxford, 1977).
Halpern, Rick & Roger Horowitz. Meatpackers: An Oral History of Black Packinghouse Workers & their Struggle for Racial & Economic Equality (NY: Monthly Review, 199?).
Hamblin, Ken. Pick a Better Country: An Unassuming Colored Guy Speaks His Mind About America (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1996).
Hamilton, Charles V. (ed.) The Black Experience in American Politics (NY, 1973).
Harding, Vincent. The Other American Revolution (Los Angeles: UCLA, 1980).
__________. There is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981).
__________. Hope & History: Why We Must Share the History of the Movement (Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1990).
__________; Robin D.G. Kelley & Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970 (NY: Oxford, 1997).
Herndon, Angelo. Let Me Live  (NY: Arno, 1969).
Humphrey, Norman D. & Alfred McClung Lee. Race Riot: A First-Hand Observation of the 1943 Detroit Riots  (NY: Octagon, 1970).
Hutchinson, Earl Ofari. The Myth of Black Capitalism (NY: Monthly Review, 1970).
__________. Let Your Motto Be Resistance: The Life & Thought of Henry Highland Garnet (Boston: Beacon, 1972).
__________. Blacks & Reds: Race & Class in Conflict, 1919-1990 (East Lansing, 1995).
__________. The Assassination of the Black Male Image (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1996).
__________. Betrayed: A History of Presidential Failure to Protect Black Lives (Boulder: Westview, 1996).
__________. Beyond O.J.: Race, Sex, & Class Lessons for America (Los Angeles: Middle Passage, 1996).
__________. The Crisis in Black & Black (Los Angeles: Middle Passage, 1998).
Isaacs, Harold R. The New World of Negro Americans (NY, 1964). On Black American experiences in West Africa.
Jenness, Valerie & Ryken Grattet. Making Hate a Crime. From Social Movement to Law Enforcement (NY, 2001).
Johnson, Ernest H. Brothers on the Mend: Understanding & Healing Anger for African American Men & Women (NY: Pocket, 1995).
Kelley, Robin D.G. Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Boston:Beacon, 2002).
_______________. Race Rebels (Boston: Beacon, 1994).
_______________. Hammer & Hoe (Boston:Beacon,1990).
Kenan, Randall. James Baldwin (NY: Chelsea House, 1994).
Lefkowitz, Mary. Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (NY, 1996).
__________ & Guy MacLean Rogers (eds.) Black Athena Revisited (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1996).
Lipsitz, George. A Life in the Struggle: Ivory Perry & the Culture of Opposition (Philadelphia: Temple, 1995).
Lomax, Louis E. The Negro Revolt (NY: Harper, 1962; rev. ed. 1971).
__________. To Kill a Black Man (Los Angeles: Holloway House, 1968).
Perry, Jeffrey B. (ed.) A Hubert Harrison Reader (Middletown CT: Wesleyan U., 2001). Socialist & later "New Negro" militant, theorist, writer & editor of early 20th c., notable among other things for spirited critiques of Washington, DuBois, Randolph, Garvey & Harlem Renaissance writers.
Marable, Manning. Race, Reform, & Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1960 (Jackson: U. Mississippi, 1984).
__________. Black American Politics: From the Washington Marches to Jesse Jackson (London, 1985).
Marks, Carole. Farewell: We're Good & Gone. The Great Black Migration (Bloomington: U. Indiana, 1989).
Marqusee, Mike. Redemption Song: Muhammad Ali & the Spirit of the Sixties (NY: Verso, 2005).
Marx, Gary T. Protest & Prejudice: A Study of Belief in the Black Community (rev ed.; NY: Harper & Row, 1969).
McAdam, Doug. Political Process & the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970 (Chicago: U. Chicago, 1992).
McClain, Paula D. & Joseph Stewart Jr. "Can We All Get Along?": Racial & Ethnic Minorities in American Politics  (Boulder: Westview, 2002).
McCall, Nathan. Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Man in Black America (NY, 1994).
Naison, Mark. Communities in Harlem During the Depression (NY: Grove, 1985).
Newman, Richard. Words Like Freedom: Essays on African-American Culture & History (West Cornwall CT: Locust Hill, 1996).
Okihiro, Gary Y. In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean & Afro-American History (Amherst MA, 1986).
Ortiz, Paul. Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing & White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley: U. of California, 2005).
Osofsky, Gilbert. Harlem: The Making of a Ghetto. Negro New York, 1890-1930 (NY: Harper & Row, 1966).
Ottley, Roi. New World A-Coming: Inside Black America (NY: Arno, 1968). Black reporter's story of Blacks in and out of government during the New Deal.
__________ & William J. Weatherby. The Negro in New York: An Informal Social History, 1626-1940 (NY: Praeger, 1969).
Painter, Nell Irvin (ed.) The Narrative of Hosea Hudson: His Life as a Negro Communist in the South (Cambridge MA: Harvard, 1979).
Payne, Charles M. & Adam Green (eds.) Time Longer Than Rope: A Century of African American Activism, 1850-1950 (NY: NYU, 2003).
Peery, Nelson. Black Fire: the Making of an American Revolutionary (NY: New Press, 1994).
Radford-Hill, Sheila. Further to Fly: Black Women & the Politics of Empowerment (Minneapolis: U. Minnesota, 2000).
Reed, Adolph. The Jesse Jackson Phenomenon (New Haven, 1986).
Robbins, Anthony & Joseph McClendon III. Unlimited Power: A Black Choice (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1997).
Robinson, Cedric J. Black Marxism: The Making of a Black Radical Tradition (London: Zed, 1983).
__________. Black Movements in America (NY: Routledge, 1997).
Robinson, James L. Racism or Attitude? The Ongoing Struggle for Black Liberation & Self-Esteem (NY: Insight, 1995).
Robinson, Randall. Defending the Spirit: A Black Life in America (NY: Dutton, 1998). Founder of Trans Africa.
__________. The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks (NY: Dutton, 2000).
__________. The Reckoning: What Blacks Owe to Each Other (NY: Dutton, 2002).
__________. Quitting America: The Departure of a Black Man from His Native Land (NY: Dutton, 20040.
Shabazz, Ilyasah with Kim McLarin. Growing Up X (NY: Ballantine, 2002). Malcolm's daughter.
Sims, Patsy. Cleveland Benjamin's Dead: A Struggle for Dignity in the Louisiana Cane Country (Athens GA: U. Georgia, 1994).
Skrentny, John D. The Minority Rights Revolution (Cambridge MA: Belknap, 2002).
Spear, Allan H. Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto, 1890-1920 (Chicago: U. Chicago, 1968).
Spencer, Jon Michael. The New Colored People. The Mixed-Race Movement in America (NY: NYU, 1997).
Stack, Carol. Call to Home. African Americans Reclaim the Rural South (NY, 1996).
Staples, Brent. Parallel Lives: Growing Up Black & White (NY: Pantheon, 1994).
Stein, Judith. The World of Marcus Garvey: Race & Class in Modern Society (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State U., 1986).
Steinberg, Stephen. Turning Back: The Retreat from Racial Justice in American Thought & Policy (Boston, 1995).
Sternsher, Bernard (ed.). The Negro in Depression & War. Prelude to Revolution, 1930-1945 (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970).
Sullivan, Patricia. Days of Hope: Race & Democracy in the New Deal Era (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1996).
Takaki, Ronald T. Violence in the Black Imagination: Essays & Documents  (rev. ed. NY: Oxford, 1993).
Trotter, Joe William Jr. River Jordan: African American Urban Life in the Ohio Valley (Lexington KY: U. Kentucky, 1998).
Tyson, Timothy B. Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams & the Roots of Black Power (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1999).
Vincent, Ted. Black Power & the Garvey Movement (NY, 1970).
__________. Keep Cool: the Black Activists Who Built the Jazz Age (London: Pluto, 1995).
Walker, Alice. Anything We Love Can Be Save: A Writer's Activism (NY, 1997).
Ward, Brian. Media, Culture & the Modern African American Freedom Struggle (Gainesville: U. Florida, 2001).
Weisbord, Robert G. Ebony Kinship: Africa, Africans & the Afro-American (Westport CT, 1974).
Williams, Armstrong. Beyond Blame: How We Can Succeed by Breaking the Dependency Barrier (NY: Free Press, 1995).
Wilson, Carter A. Racism: From Slavery to Advanced Capitalism (Thousand Oaks CA: Sage, 1996).
Winston, James. Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early 20th-C. America (NY: Verso, 1998).
Wolters, Raymond. The New Negro on Campus. Black College Rebellions of the 1920s (Princeton: Princeton U., 1975).
Wood, Richard L. Faith in Action: Religion, Race, & Democratic Organizing
in America (Chicago: U. Chicago, 2002).
Woodard, Komozi. A Nation within a Nation. Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) & Black Power Politics (Chapel Hil: U North Carolinal, 1998).
Woods, Clyde. Development Arrested: The Blues & Plantation Power in the Mississippi Delta (London: Verso, 1998).\
Wright, W.D. Racism Matters (Westport CT: Praeger, 1998).
X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X  (NY: Ballantine, 1992).
In the Library: Fiction
Robinson, Randall. The Emancipation of Wakefield Clay: A Novel (London: Bogle-L'Ouverture, 1978).
In the Library: For Young Readers
In the Library: Poetry
Maya Angelou, "And Still I Rise," in her (?, 1978).
In the Library: Drama
Baldwin, James. Blues for Mister Charlie (NY: Dial, 1964).
Smith, Anna Deveare. Fires in the Mirror (NY, 1993). One-woman play about the confrontation between Blacks & Hasidim in Brooklyn's Crown Heights.
In the Library: Photography
Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs (NY: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1993).
"Like a King," "How Many Miles Must We March?" & "I'll Rise" on Ben Harper's Welcome to the Cruel World, EMI Virgin Music.
"A. Philip Randolph: For Jobs & Freedom" , dir. Dante James, 86m.
"Cousin Bobby" , dir. Jonathan Demme, 70m. In video stores. Racial injustice & Black Panthers in Jersey City, seen through eyes of a white sympathizer.
"Death of a Prophet: The Last Days of Malcolm X" , dir. Woodie King Jr., 60m. From Essenay Entertainment.
"Malcolm X" , dir. Arnold Perl, 91m. In video stores.
"Malcolm X" , dir. Spike Lee, 202m. In video stores.
"Malcolm X: Make it Plain" , dir. Orlando Bagwell, 150m.
"Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind" , dir. Stanley Nelson, ?m. "Back to Africa" movement of 1920s.