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(see also Jim Crow, White Racism, African American History, Life & Values to 1968, African American Movements, Culture of Violence)

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On the Web: Articles

On the Web: Specialized Sites

American Lynching.

Musarium: Without Sanctuary.

In the Library: Articles

Alexander, A.F. "Like an evil wind: the Roanoke Riot of 1893 & the lynching of Thomas Smith," Virginia Magazine of History & Biography 100,2 (4/92):171-206.

Beck, E.M. & S.E. Tolnay. "The killing fields of the Deep South: the market for cotton & the lynching of Blacks, 1882-1930," American Sociological Review 55,4 (8/90):526-39.

__________. "A season for violence: the lynching of Blacks & labor demand in the agricultural production cycle in the American South," International Review of Social History 37,1 (1992):1-24.

Beers, P.G. "The Wythe County lynching of Raymond Bird: Progressivism vs. mob violence in the 1920s.," Appalachian Journal 22,1 (fall 94):34-59.

Brundage, F. "To howl loudly: John Mitchell & his campaign against lynching in Virginia," Canadian Review of American Studies 22,3 (win 91):325-42.

Clarke, J.W. "Without fear or shame: lynching, capital punishment & the subculture of violence in the American South," British Journal of Political Science 28,2 (4/98):269-89.

Corzine, J.; L. Huffcorzine & C. Nelsen. "Rethinking lynching: extralegal executions in Postbellum Louisiana," Deviant Behavior 17,2 (4-6/96):133-57.

Downey, D.B. "The Lord's messenger: racial lynching & the church trial of Robert Elwood," Journal of Presbyterian History 79, (sum 01):235-49.

Fairclough, A. "'40 acres & a mule': American racial history. Horace Mann Bond & the lynching of Jerome Wilson," Journal of American Studies 31,1 (4/97):1-17.

Goldsby, J. "The high & low tech of it: the Civil Rights Movement & the transformation of Southern symbols of social judgement & repudiation: the meaning of lynching & the death of Emmett Till," Yale Journal of Criticism 9,2 (fall 96):245-82.

Green, D.P.; J. Glaser & A. Rich. "From lynching to gay bashing: the elusive connection between economic conditions & hate crime," Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 75,1 (7/98):82-92.

Harris, J. William. "Etiquette, lynching & racial boundaries in Southern history: a Mississippi example," American Historical Review 100,2 (4/95):387-410.

Hatt, M. "Sculpting & lynching: the making & unmaking of the Black citizen in late 19th-c. America," Oxford Art Journal 24,1 (2001):1-22.

McMurtry, Larry. "Hometown America's Black book," NY Review of Books (12/21/00). Review of Allen, Without Sanctuary.

Moreau, S. "Crusader for Justice," American History 35,6 (2/01):18-. Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) her crusade against lynching & for civil rights.

Olzak, S. "The political context of competition: lynching & urban racial violence, 1882-1914," Social Forces 69,2 (12/90):395-421.

Pederson, J.M. "Gender, justice, & a Wisconsin lynching, 1889-90," Agricultural History 67,2 (spr 93): 65-82.

Sherwood, M. "Lynching in Britain," History Today 49,3 (3/99):21-23.

Simon, B. "Narrating a Southern tragedy: historical facts & historical fictions," Rethinking History 1,2 (fall 97):165-87.

Soule, S.A. "Populism & Black lynching in Georgia, 1890-1900," Social Forces 71,2 (12/92):431-49.

Stephens, J.L. "Racial violence & representation: performance strategies in lynching dramas of the 1920s," African American Review 33,4 (win 99):655-71.

Stovel, K. "Local sequential patterns: the structure of lynching in the Deep South, 1882-1930," Social Forces 79,3 (3/01):843-80.

Vinikas, W. "Specters in the past: the St. Charles, Arkansas, lynching of 1904 & the limits of historical inquiry," Journal of Southern History 65,3 (8/99):535-64.

Waldrep, C. "War of words: the controversy over the definition of lynching, 1899-1940," Journal of Southern History 66,1 (feb 00):75-100.

Wiegman, R. "The anatomy of lynching," Journal of the History of Sexuality 3,3 (1/93):445-67.

Williams, L.B. "Images of Scottsboro," Southern Cultures 6,1 (spr 00):50-67.

Williams, Y.R. "Permission to hate: Delaware, lynching, & the culture of violence in America," Journal of Black Studies 32,1 (9/01):3-29.

Williamson, J. "Wounds, not scars: lynching, the national conscience & the American historian," Journal of American History 83,4 (3/97):1221-53.

Wolf, C. "Constructions of a lynching," Sociological Inquiry 62,1 (win 92):83-97.

Worth, R.F. "The legacy of a lynching," American Scholar 67,2 (spr 98):65-77.

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Ayers, Edward L. Vengeance & Justice: Crime & Punishment in the 19th-Century American South (NY: Oxford, 1984).

Beck, E.M. & Stewart E. Tolnay. A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930 (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1995).

Bond, Horace Mann & Julia W. Bond. The Star Creek Papers: Washington Parish & the Lynching of Jerome Wilson (Athens: U. Georgia, 1997).

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. Lynching in the New South: Georgia & Virginia, 1880-1930 (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1993).

__________ (ed.) Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South (Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina, 1997).

Capeci, Dominic J. Jr. The Lynching of Cleo Wright (Lexington: U. Kentucky, 1998).

Curriden, Mark & Leroy Phillips. Contempt of Court: the Turn-of-the-Century Lynching that Launched 100 Years of Federalism (NY: Faber & Faber, 1999).

Downey, D.B. & R.M. Hyser. No Crooked Death: Coatesville, PA & the Lynching of Zachariah Walker (Urbana: U. Illinois, 1991).

Dray, Philip. At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America (NY: Random House, 2002). History of lynching, revealing it not as occasional spasm of violence, but as social institution & ritualized spectacle.

Frey, Rober Seitz & Nancy Thompson-Frey. The Silent & the Damned: The Murder of Mary Phagan & the Lynching of Leo Frank (Lanham MD: Madison, 1988).

Gambino, R. Vendetta: The True Story of the Largest Lynching in US History (2nd ed.; Toronto: Guernica, 1998).

Gunning, Sandra. Race, Rape, & Lynching: The Red Record of American Literature, 1890-1912 (NY: Oxford, 1996).

Gussow, Adam. Seems Like Murder Here: Southern Violence & the Blues Tradition (Chicago: U. Chicago, 2002).

Madison, James H. A Lynching in the Heartland: Race & Memory in America (NY: Palgrave/St. Martin's, 2001).

MacLean, Nancy. Behind the Mask of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan (NY: Oxford, 1994).

Melnick, Jeffrey Paul. Black-Jewish Relations on Trial: Leo Frank & Jim Conley in the New South (Jackson: U. Mississippi, 2000).

Metress, Christopher (ed.) The Lynching of Emmett Till: A Documentary Narrative (Charlottesville: U. Virginia, 2002).

Oney, Steve. And the Dead Shall Rise: The Murder of Mary Phagan & the Lynching of Leo Frank (NY: Anchor, 2004).

Pinar, William. The Gender of Racial Politics & Violence in America: Lynching, Prison Rape & the Crisis of Masculinity (NY: Peter Lang, 2001).

Rice, Anne P. (ed). Witnessing Lynching: American Writers Respond (Piscataway NJ: Rutgers, 2003).

Rimanelli, Marco & Sheryl L. Postman. The 1891 New Orleans Lynching & US-Italian Relations: A Look Back (NY: Peter Lang, 1992).

Royster, Jacqueline Jones. Southern Horrors & Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892-1900 (NY: Bedford, 1996).

Steelwater, Eliza. The Hangman's Knot: Lynching, Legal Execution & America's Struggle with the Death Penalty (Boulder: Westview, 2003).

In the Library: Fiction

Clark, Walter van Tilberg. The Ox-Bow Incident (NY: Random House, 1940).

Toomer, Jean. Cane (NY: Boni & Liveright, 1923 & many subsequent eds.).

In the Library: Poetry

Clifton, Lucille. "Photograph, the lynching," Callaloo 22,1 (win 99):52.

Moss, T. "The 'lynching'," Ploughshares 15,4 (1989):146-47.

In the Library: Photography

Allen, James.; H. Als, J. Lewis & Leon F. Litwack. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photogaphy in America (Santa Fe NM: Twin Palms, 2000).

CD & Audio

Film & Video

"The Ox-Bow Incident" [1943], dir. William A. Wellman, 75m. In video stores.

"Vendetta: [1999)], by HBO Pictures, 117m. From HBO Home Video.

"Wild at Heart" [1990], dir. David Lynch, 125m. In video stores



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