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(see also Angola, Mozambique & Guiné-Bissau)

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CIA World Factbook. Includes map.

New Internationalist Profile

UN Development Program, Human Development Indicators

World Guide

On the Web: Articles

On the Web: Specialized Sites

Ibermundo Portugal

WWW Virtual Library

In the Library: Articles

Anon. "The MFA as a national liberation movement," Monthly Review 27,4 (9/75):27-38.

Barreto, Antonio. "Reforma agraria y revolución en Portugal, 1974-76," Revista de Estudios Políticos 60-61 (1988):413-30.

Braga, Thomas J. "The lyrics of a revolution: Zeca Afonso's 'Cantigas do Maio,'" Journal of the American Portuguese Society 12 (1979):1-18.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. "Holy anorexia in modern Portugal," Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry 12,2 (6/88):239-48. Rev. essay on Pina-Cabral Sons of Adam.

Gallagher, Tom. "Controlled repression in Salazar's Portugal," Journal of Contemporary History 14,3 (?):

__________. "The Catholic Church & the Estado Novo of Portugal," in Obelkevich et al. (eds.) Disciplines of Faith (London, 1987), pp. 518-36.

Gaspar, Carlos. "The PCP: Can Communists survive Communism?" Camões Center Quarterly 3,1-2 (spr-sum 91):12-18.

Herrick, Robert. "US foreign policy & Portugal: a reevaluation," New Scholar 3,2 (1973):124-64.

Maxwell, Kenneth. "Portugal: a neat revolution," NY Rev of Books (6/13/74):16-21.

__________. "Portugal's hidden revolutions," NY Rev of Books (4/17/75):29-35.

__________. "Portugal under pressure," NY Rev of Books (5/19/75):20-30.

__________. "The thorns of the Portuguese Revolution," Foreign Affairs (1/76):250-70.

__________. "Troubled Portugal," in McClellan (ed.) Spain & Portugal: Democratic Beginnings (NY, 1978).

__________. "The strategy & tactics of the Portuguese Communist Party," in G. Schwab (ed.) Eurocommunism (Westport CT, 1981), pp. 269-302.

__________. "The emergence of democracy in Portugal," in J. Herz (ed.) From Dictatorship to Democracy (Westport CT, 1982), pp. 231-50.

__________. "Portugal: prisoners of glory," Wilson Quarterly 9,1 (1985):49-66.

__________. "Regime overthrow & the prospects for democratic transition in Portugal," in O'Donnell et al. (eds.) Transitions from Authoritarian Rule (Baltimore, 1986), pp. 109-37.

O'Brien, Jay. "Portugal & Africa: a dying imperialism," Monthly Review 26,1 (5/74):19-36.

Opello, Walter C. Jr. "The transition to democracy & the constitutional settlement as causes of political instability in post-authoritarian Portugal," Luso-Brazilian Review 27,2 (win 90):77-94.

Pinto, Antonio Costa. "Salazar's 'New State'," Camões Center Quarterly 4,1-2 (spr-sum 92):26-37.

Rosenthal, Glenda. "The history of fascism revisited: Portugal in the European context," Camões Center Quarterly 6/7,1-2 (sum-fall 97):40-56.

Saramago, José. "Interview with Irwin Stern," Camões Center Quarterly (1995):48-55. Objects to incorporation of Portugal into a German-dominated Europe whose 400 million citizens are defined as consumers.

Sweezy, Paul. "Class struggles in Portugal," Monthly Review 27,4 (9/75):1-26 & 27,5 (10/75):1-15.

Wheeler, Douglas L. "The Portuguese Revolution of 1910," Journal of Modern History ?,? (1972).

__________. "Thaw in Portugal," Foreign Affairs ? (7/70).

In the Library: Non-Fiction Books

Antunes, Jose Freire. A Guerra de Africa, 1961-1974 (Lisboa, 1996).

Bermeo, Nancy. Revolution within the Revolution: Worker's Control in Rural Portugal (Princeton: Princeton U, 1988).

Bradford, Sarah. Portugal (London: Thames & Hudson, 1973).

Brettell, Caroline B. Men Who Migrate, Women Who Wait: Population & History in a Portuguese Parish (Princeton: Princeton U, 1986).

__________. We Have Already Cried Many Tears: The Stories of Three Portuguese Migrant Women (Prospect Hts.: Waveland, 1995).

Bruneau, Thomas C. Politics & Nationhood: Post-Revolutionary Portugal (NY: Praeger, 1984).

__________ & Alex Macleod. Politics in Contemporary Portugal: Parties & the Consolidation of Democracy (Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 1986).

__________. Portugal Fifteen Years After the April Revolution (Indianapolis: Universities Field Staff, 1989).

__________ (ed.) Political Parties & Democracy in Portugal: Organizations, Elections, & Public Opinion (Boulder: Westview, 1997).

Cann, John. Counterinsurgency in Africa: The Portuguese Way of War, 1961-1974 (Westport CT: Greenwood, 1997).

Claret Serra, Andreu. Hablan los capitanes. Portugal: Génesis ideológica y práctica política del Movimiento de las Fuerzas Armadas (Barcelona: Ariel, 1975).

Cutileiro, José. A Portuguese Rural Society (Oxford: Clarendon, 1971). Peasants of the Alentejo.

Downs, Charles. Revolution at the Grassroots: Community Organizations in the Portuguese Revolution (Albany: SUNY, 1989).

Ferreira, Hugo Gil & Michael W. Marshall. Portugal's Revolution: Ten Years On (NY: Cambridge, 1987).

Figueiredo, Antonio de. Portugal: Fifty Years of Dictatorship (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975).

Freire, João. Freedom Fighters: Anarchist Intellectuals, Workers & Soldiers in Portugal (Montreal: Black Rose, 2001). History of militance before & during Salazar dictatorship.

Gallagher, Tom. Portugal: A Twentieth-Century Interpretation (Manchester: Manchester U, 1983).

Graham, Lawrence S. & Harry M. Makler (eds.) Contemporary Portugal: The Revolution & its Antecedents (Austin: U. Texas, 1979).

Hammond, John L. Building Popular Power: Workers' & Neighborhood Movements in the Portuguese Revolution (NY: Monthly Review, 1988). Short-lived but exhilarating takeovers of communities & workplaces in the wake of the 1974 revolution.

Harvey, Robert. Portugal: Birth of a Democracy (NY: St. Martin's, 1978).

Herr, Richard (ed.) New Portugal: Democracy & Europe (Berkeley: U. California, 1992).

Jenkins, Robin. The Road to Alto: An Account of Peasants, Capitalist, & the Soil in the Mountains of Southern Portugal (London: Pluto, 1979). On the "development of underdevelopment" and ecological dysfunction in a tiny rural Portuguese community, as self-sufficiency was swamped by market forces in the 1950s, 60s & 70s. (rev. Monthly Review 1/86).

Kay, Hugh. Salazar & Modern Portugal (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970).

Machado, Diamantino P. The Structure of Portuguese Society: The Failure of Fascism (NY: Praeger, 1991).

Mailer, Phil. Portugal: The Impossible Revolution (London: Solidarity, 1977).

Maxwell, Kenneth (ed.) The Press & the Rebirth of Iberian Democracy (Westport CT: Greenwood, 1983).

__________. Portugal in the 1980s: Dilemmas of Democratic Consolidation (NY: Greenwood, 1986).

__________. Portugal: Ancient Country, New Democracy (Washington: Wilson Center, 1990).

__________. The Making of Portuguese Democracy (NY: Cambridge, 1996).

O'Neill, Brian Juan. Social Inequality in a Portuguese Hamlet: Land, Late Marriage, & Bastardy, 1870-1978 (NY:Cambridge, 1987).

Pina-Cabral, João de. Sons of Adam, Daughters of Eve: The Peasant Worldview of the Alto Minho (NY: Oxford, 1986).

Pinto, António Costa. Salazar's Dictatorship & European Fascism: Problems of Interpretation (NY: Columbia U, 1995).

__________ (ed.) Modern Portugal (Palo Alto CA: Society for the Promotion of Science & Scholarship, 1998).

__________. The Blue Shirts: Portuguese Fascists & the New State [1994] (NY: Columbia U, 2000).

Raby, David L. Fascism & Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals & Military Dissidents in the Opposition to Salazar, 1941-1974 (Manchester: Manchester U, 1988).

Robinson, R.A.H. Contemporary Portugal: A History (London: Allen & Unwin, 1979).

Rocha, Jofre. Assim se fez madrugada (Canções do povo e da Revolução) (Lisboa, 1977).

Saramago, Jose. Journey to Portugal: In Pursuit of Portugal's History & Culture [1994] (NY: Harcourt, 2000).

Vieira, Nelson H. (ed.) Roads to Today's Portugal: Essays on Contemporary Portuguese Literature, Art & Culture (Providence: Gavea-Brown, 1983).

Wiarda, Howard J. Corporatism & Development: The Portuguese Experience (Amherst MA: U. Massachusetts, 1977).

Wise, Audrey. Eyewitness in Revolutionary Portugal (Nottingham: Spokesman, 1975).

In the Library: Fiction

In the Library: Poetry

In the Library: Photography

Cunha, Alfredo. Porto de mar (Lisboa: Contexto, 1997).

Hopkinson, Amanda (ed.) Reflections by Ten Portuguese Photographers (Barkway: Frontline, 1996).

CD & Audio:

Film & Video:

"Cinco dias, cinco noites" [1996], dir. José Fonseca e Costa, 100m. Fictional memoir of 1940s as lived by Communist leader Alvaro Cunhal.

Monterey Bay Educators Against War
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