Militarization of Foreign Policy
(see also War, Arms Trade, War Profiteering, War on Terrorism, American Empire, Foreign Policy Reform & US & the UN)
Report: Military Spending Tops $1 Trillion Last Year. Mattias Karen, AP (6/7/05). World-wide. US accounts for about half of total, spends far more per capita ($1,453) than any other country, according to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
The Marines' "How To" Book for Empire. William Marina, Common Dreams (4/14/04).
Career Officer Does Eye-Opening Stint Inside Pentagon. Karen Kwiatowski, Akron Beacon-Jouirnal (7/31/03). Retired Lt.-Col.'s critique of planning & execution of Iraq reconstruction.
Pentagon's "Footprint" Growing in Africa. Jim Lobe, Foreign Policy in Focus (5/12/03).
The Push for War. Anatol Lieven, London Review of Books (10/3/02). Brilliant critique of world view & militarist foreign policy of "think tank" intellectuals surrounding Bush administration.
The President's Real Goal in Iraq. Jay Bookman, Atlanta Journal-Constitution (9/29/02).
Instances of the Use of US Forces Abroad, 1798-1993. Ellen C. Collier, Congressional Research Service (10/7/93). Lists 234 foreign interventions as of that date.
On the Web: Specialized Sites
American Forces Information Service (Department of Defense).
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Anon. "The military budget boondoggle," In These Times (6/16/97).
Arnove, Anthony. "Robber baron," In These Times (11/13/00):7-8. Dick Cheney profits from lucrative deals with Iraq.
Baker, Kevin. "We're in the army now," Harper's (10/03):35-46. GOP's plan to spread military culture.
Borosage, Robert L. "All dollars, no sense," Mother Jones (9-10/93):41-44.
Catley, Bob. "Hegemonic America: the arrogance of power," Contemporary Southeast Asia (8/99).
Cockburn, Alexander. "Cambodia to Kosovo," Nation (6/7/99):9. Origins & importance of War Powers Act, limiting President's authority to wage war without prior Congressional approval.
Cortright, David. "NATOs new frontier," Nation (3/31/97):21-22.
Dowd, Doug. “Cry ‘havoc!’ & let slip the dogs of war: McCarthyism, Korea, & other nightmares,” Monthly Review 48, 11 (4/97):32-42.
Dreyfuss, Robert. “The thirty-year itch,” Mother Jones (3-4/03):38-45.
Evernden, Jack F. "Politics, technology, & the test ban," in Len Ackland & Steven McGuire (eds.) Assessing the Nuclear Age: Selections from the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Chicago IL: Education Foundation for Nuclear Science), pp.181-187. When politicians deal with complex technology, things may not always be what they seem.
Falk, Richard. "Liberation from the military logic," in Len Ackland & Steven McGuire (eds.) Assessing the Nuclear Age: Selections from the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Chicago IL: Education Foundation for Nuclear Science), pp. 295-302.
Farrell, Michael J. "If LIC is the answer, US interests are the question," National Catholic Reporter (4/20/90). On "low intensity conflict" doctrine of Reagan era & its projection into future.
Fitgerald, France. “Annals of justice: Iran-Contra,” New Yorker (8/16/89):52-84
Galambos, Louis. "Paying up: the price of the Vietnam War," Journal of Policy History 8 (1996):166-79.
Hertzberg, Hendrik. “Talk of the town,” New Yorker (4/14/03): 25-26.
Hersh, Seymour M. "Selective intelligence," New Yorker (5/12/03):44-51.
__________. "Offense & defense," New Yorker (4/7/03):43-45. Rumsfeld vs. Pentagon in preparations for Iraq war.
Klare, Michael. "US military strategy after Vietnam," Monthly Review 25,10(3/74):11-26.
__________. "Itching for a fight. Washington prepares for war against the rogues" Progressive (9/96):32-33.
__________. "Permanent presence: US strategic policy for the 21st c.," NACLA Report 34,3 (11-12/00):8-15.
Lawson, Maggie Ledford. "The fatal legend of preemptive war," National Catholic Reporter (2/27/04):18.
Mandebaum, Michael. "A perfect failure: NATOs war against Yugoslavia," Foreign Affairs (9/10/99).
Marshall, Joshua Michah. "Practice to decieve: chaos in the Middle East isn't the Bush-hawks' nightmare scenario-it's their plan," The Washington Monthly (4/03):29-34.
Melman, Seymour. "Military state capitalism," Nation (5/20/91):1,664.
Mesler, Bill. "NATO's new arms bazaar: US military contractors & diplomats are hawking their wares together," Nation (7/21/97).
Nearing, Scott. "They call it defense," Monthly Review (5/55). Critical response to Newsweek article mapping aggressive encirclement of Soviet Union.
Rogers, Paul. "US military posture: a uniquely benign imperialism?" in L. Panitch & C. Leys (eds.) Socialist Register 2004: The New Imperial Challenge (NY: Monthly Review, 2004).
Rostow, Walt W. "Countering guerrilla warfare," New Leader (7/31/61):12-14. Early formulation of US counter-insurgency doctrine perfected in Vietnam, & applied later in Southern Africa, Central America, Philippines, Colombia & elsewhere.
Saletan, William. "Humanitarian hawks. What wars can liberals support? The kind that conservatives hate" Mother Jones (7/8/99):29-31.
Schwarz, Benjamin & Christopher Layne. "NATO at 50: its time
to quit," Nation (5/10/99):15-19.
Slotkin, Richard. "Gunfighters & Green Berets: The magnificent seven and the myth of counter-insurgency," Radical History Review 44 (1989):65-90.
Stocking, Ben. "Viet-US military ties to be pursued," San Jose Mercury News (10/3/03): 1AA.
Ziferstein, Isidore. "Psychological habituation to war," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry ?,? (4/67). How government propaganda prepares people for war.
Zinn, Howard. "The greatest generation?" Progressive (10/01).
In the Library: Non-Fiction Books
Aldrich, R.J. & G.D. Rawnsley (eds.) The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1945-65: Western Intelligence, Propaganda & Special Operations (Portland, 2000).
Arlinghaus, Bruce E. (ed.) Arms for Africa: Military Assistance & Foreign Policy in the Developing World (Lexington MA: Lexington, 1983).
Bacevich, Andrew J. & Eliot A. Cohen (eds.) War over Kosovo. Politics
& Strategy in a Global Age (NY, 2001).
Bellesiles, Michael A. Lethal Imagination: Violence & Brutality in American History (NY, 1999).
Bennis, Phillis. Before & After: US Foreign Policy & the September 11 Crisis (NY: Olive Branch, 2003).
Blum, William. Rogue State. A Guide to the Worlds Only Superpower (Monroe ME, 2000).
Brandes, Stuart D. Warhogs: A History of War Profits in America (Lexington KY, 1997).
Brodine, Virginia & Mark Selden (eds.) Open Secret: The Kissinger-Nixon Doctrine in Asia (NY: Harper & Row, 1972).
Clark, Gen. Wesley. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, & the Future of Combat (NY: Public Affairs, 2001).
___________. Winning Modern Wars: Iraq, Terrorism and the American Empire (NY: PublicAffairs, 2003).
Cohen, Warren I. (ed.) The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations (NY: Cambridge, 1993).
Collins, John & Ross Glover. Collateral Language: A User's Guide to America's New War (NY: NYU, 2003).
Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches & Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (Berkeley: U. California, 2002).
Fallaci, Oriana. Interview with History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976). Interview with Henry Kissinger.
Fousek, John. To Lead the Free World: American Nationalism & the Cultural
Roots of the Cold War (Chapel Hill, 2000).
Gibson, James W. Warrior Dreams. Paramilitary Culture in Post-Vietnam America (NY, 199?).
Goff, Stan. Full Spectrum Disorder: The Military in the New American Century (Brooklyn NY: Soft Skull, 2004).
Greider, William. Fortress America: The American Military & the Consequences of Peace (NY: PublicAffairs, 1998). Pentagon trapped in spiral of wasteful & potentially deadly spending. Urges honest debate of alternatives for long-term security.
Halberstam, David. War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton & the Generals (NY, 2001). On post-Cold War uses of bombing as "low-cost" assertion of power.
Hartung, William D. And Weapons for All (NY: Harper Collins, 1994). Institutionalization of US arms trade since Nixon Doctrine, & its implications for US society & world.
__________. Corporate Welfare for Weapons Makers: The Hidden Costs of Spending on Defense & Foreign Aid (Washington: Cato Institute, 1999).
Hoffman, Stanley. America Goes Backward (NY: NY Review, 2005?)
Hoyt, Edwin P. The American Attitude: The Story of the Making of Foreign Policy in the US (NY: Abelard-Schuman, 1970).
__________. America's Wars & Military Incursions (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1987).
Hirsh, Michael. At War with Ourselves: Why America is Squandering its Chance to Build a Better World (NY: Oxford, 2003).
Hunter, Stephen. Time to Hunt (NY: Bantam, 2003).
Johnson, Chalmers. Blowback: The Costs & Consequences of American
Empire (NY, 2001).
Katzenstein, Peter (ed.) The Culture of National Security: Norms & Identity in World Politics (NY, 1996).
Klare, Michael T.& Cynthia Arnson & Delia Miller & Daniel Volman. Supplying Repression: US Support for Authoritarian Regimes Abroad (Washington: Institute for Policy Studies, 1981).
__________. Beyond the Vietnam Syndrome: US Interventionism in the 1980s (Washington: Institute for Policy Studies, 1981).
Kofsky, Frank. Harry S. Truman & the War Scare of 1948: A Successful Campaign to Deceive the Nation (NY: St. Martin's, 1993).
Kolko, Gabriel. The Roots of American Foreign Policy: An Analysis of Power & Purpose (Boston: Beacon, 1969).
__________. Confronting the Third World: US Foreign Policy, 1945-1980 (NY: Pantheon, 1988).
Kolko, Joyce & Gabriel Kolko. The Limits of Power: The World &
US Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (NY: Harper & Row, 1972).
Kuttner, Robert. Everything for Sale. The Virtues & Limits of Markets (NY, 1997).
LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, & the Cold War, 1945-2000 (9th ed.; NY: Wiley, 2002).
__________. America in the Cold War: Twenty Years of Revolutions & Response, 1947-1967 (NY: Wiley, 1969).
Landau, Saul. The Dangerous Doctrine: National Security & US Foreign Policy (Boulder: Westview, 1988).
Lens, Sidney. The Military-Industrial Complex (Philadelphia: Pilgrim, 1970).
__________. The Maginot Line Syndrom: America's Hopeless Foreign Policy (Cambridge MA: Ballinger, 1982).
__________. Permanent War: The Militarization of America (NY: Schocken,
Logevall, Frederick. Choosing War. The Last Chance for Peace & the Escalation of War in Vietnam (Berkeley, 1999).
Maddox, Robert J. The Unknown War with Russia: Wilson's Siberian Intervention (San Rafael CA: Presidio, 1977).
__________. From War to Cold War: The Education of Harry Truman (Bouldere: Westview, 1988).
Mann, Michael. Incoherent Empire (NY: Verso, 2005). US imperial project "fundamentally flawed on its own terms," promising "a future in which unfettered militarism must make up for glaring inadequacies in polcy-making."
May, Ernest R. & Walter LaFeber. The Impact of War on the US in the 20th Century (Houston TX: U. of St. Thomas, 1974).
McFarland, Keith D. & David L. Roll. Louis Johnson & the Arming of America: The Roosevelt & Truman Years (Bloomington: Indiana U., 2005).
Murtha, John P. From Vietnam to 9/11: On the Front Lines of National Security (University Park: Pennsylvania State U, 2003).
McCormick, Thomas J. & Walter LaFeber (eds.) Behind the Throne: Servants of Power to Imperial Presidents, 1898-1968 (Madison: U. Wisconsin, 1993).
O'Hanlon, Michael E. The Art of War in an Age of Peace: US Military Posture for the Post-Cold War World (Westport CT: Praeger, 1992).
__________. Defense Planning for the Late 1990s: Beyond the Desert Storm Framework (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995).
Peceny, Mark. Democracy at the Point of Bayonets (University Park PA: Pennsylvania State, 1999).
Peterson, Scott. Me Against My Brother. At War in Somalia, Sudan & Rwanda (NY, 2001).
Powaski, Ronald E. Toward an Entangling Alliance: American Isolationism, Internationalism & Europe, 1901-1950 (NY: Greenwood, 1991).
__________. The Cold War: The US & the Soviet Union, 1917-1991 (NY: Oxford, 1998).
Priest, Dana. The Mission: Waging War & Keeping Peace with America’s Military (NY: Norton, 2003).
Quigley, John B. The Ruses for War: American Interventionism since World War II (Buffalo NY: Prometheus, 1992).
Retort. Afflicted Powers: Capital & Spectacle in a New Age of War (London: Verso, 2005).
Schell, Jonathan. The Unconquerable World: Power, Nonviolence, & the Will of the People (NY: Holt, 2003).
Schoenbaum, Thomas J. Waging Peace & War: Dean Rusk in the Truman,
Kennedy & Johnson Years (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1988).
Schmitz, David F. Thank God Theyre on Our Side: The U.S. & Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1921-1965 (Chapel Hill, 1999).
Scott, James M. (ed.) After the End: Making U.S. Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War World (Durham NC, 1998).
Simpson, Christopher. Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis & its
Effect on the Cold War (NY: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988).
Small, Melvin. Was War Necessary? National Security & U.S. Entry into War (Beverly Hills, 1980). Reviews circumstances of entry into wars of 1812, Mexican-American, Spanish-American, World Wars I & II & Korea.
Stockwell, John. The Praetorian Guard: The US Role in the New World Order (Boston: South End, 1991).
Vidal, Gore. Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace (NY: Nation Books, 2002).
Williams, William Appleman. America Confronts a Revolutionary World, 1776-1976 (NY: Morrow, 1976).
Yergin, Daniel. Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War & the National Security State (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977).
Zunes, Stephen. Tinderbox: US Foreign Policy & the Roots of Terrorism (Monroe ME: Common Courage, 2002).
In the Library: Fiction
In the Library: For Young Readers
In the Library: Poetry
In the Library: Drama
In the Library: Photography
"Arms for the Poor" , dir. ?, 25m. From Old Dog Documentaries. Nobel Peace Prize winner Oscar Arias, former Rep. Cynthia McKinney & the Dalai Lama argue against US arms exports to developing countries.
"Bowling for Columbine" , dir. Michael Moore. In video stores.
"Deadly Mistakes" , dir. Walter Miale, 405m (2 videodiscs). From Bullfrog Films. Egregious US policy errors: nuclear weapons, Cuba, Vietnam, Cold War, Central America, Iraq, Colombia.
" In Whose Interest?" , dir. ?, 27m. On transformation of US into "superpower" since 1945.
"Keeping the Old Game Alive" , by National Film Board of Canada, 60m. From Films Inc. Examines annual NATO war games, & prospects for the next world war.
"The Road to Total War" , by National Film Board of Canada, 60m. From Films Inc. Advances in military technology over two centuries.
"The Trials of Henry Kissinger" , dir. Alex Gibney & Eugene Jarecki, 80m. From First Run Features.